Joseph Mallord William Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in London, England, on April 23, 1775. His father was a barber. His mother died when he was very young. The boy received little schooling. His father taught him how to read, but this was the extent of his education except for the study of art. By the age of 13 he was making drawings at home and exhibiting them in his father's shop window for sale.
Turner was 15 years old when he received a rare honor--one of his paintings was exhibited at the Royal Academy. By the time he was 18 he had his own studio. Before he was 20 print sellers were eagerly buying his drawings for reproduction.
Fishermen at Sea. 1796. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.
Venice was the inspiration of some of Turner's finest work. Wherever he visited he studied the effects of sea and sky in every kind of weather. His early training had been as a topographic draftsman. With the years, however, he developed a painting technique all his own. Instead of merely recording factually what he saw, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic feelings.
Warkworth Castle, Northumberland - Thunder Storm Approaching at Sun-Set. 1799. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK.
As he grew older Turner became an eccentric. Except for his father, with whom he lived for 30 years, he had no close friends. He allowed no one to watch him while he painted. He gave up attending the meetings of the academy. None of his acquaintances saw him for months at a time. Turner continued to travel but always alone. He still held exhibitions, but he usually refused to sell his paintings. When he was persuaded to sell one, he was dejected for days.
Flint Castle. 1838. Watercolour on paper. Private collection, Japan.
View of Saint-Germain-ea-Laye and Its Chateau. Watercolour on paper. Louvre, Paris, France.
In 1850 he exhibited for the last time. One day Turner disappeared from his house. His housekeeper, after a search of many months, found him hiding in a house in Chelsea. He had been ill for a long time. He died the following day--Dec. 19, 1851
Peace - Burial at Sea. 1842. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.
Turner left a large fortune that he hoped would be used to support what he called "decaying artists." His collection of paintings was bequeathed to his country. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
The Shipwreck. 1805. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.
Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps. 1812. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.