Презентація "The development of modern English"

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The development of modern English
Indo-European:
Germanic
West Germanic
Anglo–Frisian
Anglic
English


Слайд #2
The development of modern English language can be divided to:
Old English period (V-X A.C.)
Middle English period (X-XIV A.C.)
Early Modern English period (>XV A.C.)
Modern English period (nowdays)


Слайд #3
Old English period (V-X A.C.)
Celts (native)
Anglo-saxons (invaded in V A.C.)
Romans (0 -V A.C.)
Vikings (invaded in IX-XI)
Celtic
french-frisian
lingua latina
old swedish
+cults( cromlech, coronach )
+wars (javelin, pibroch)
+animals(hog)
+clan, tory, plaid, whisky, etc
The basis of English
+territories (Lincoln,Devon-port, Lancaster)
+foods/clothes (butter,cheese,piar)
+religious (bishop, apostle, cloister )
+buildings (wall, street), etc
+grammars (they, same, both)
+vernaculars (ill, take, ugly), etc


Слайд #4
Middle English period (X-XV A.C.)
Normans (X –XV A.C.)
norman-french
+reigns (reign, government, crown, state)
+nobles (duke, peer)
+military (army, peace, battle, soldier, general, enemy)
+judgments (judge, crime, court)
+religious (service, punish)
+meals (beef, pork, mutton, veal)
Middle English period (X-XV A.C.)
Middle English period (X-XIV A.C.)


Слайд #5
Great Vowel Shift (XIV-XVIII A.C.)
  /a:/ →[æː] →[ɛː], [eː] → [eɪ] (make)
/ɛː/ →[eː] →[iː]/ [eɪ] (beak/break)
/eː/ →[iː] (feet)
/iː/ →[ɪi] →[əɪ] →[aɪ] (mice)
/ɔː/ →[oː] →[oʊ]/[əʊ] (boat)
 /oː/ →[uː]  (boot)
/uː/ →[uʊ] →[əʊ] →[aʊ] (mouse)

Middle English period (X-XV A.C.)


Слайд #6
Early Modern English period (>XV A.C.)
With the development of typing there had started the fixation of rules of normal and official English;
phonetics and spoken language continued changing.


Слайд #7
Different ethnical structure generated lots of dialects:
 
Cockney (London)
Scouse (Liverpool )
West Country
East England
Birmingham
Cornwall
Cumberland
Devonshire 
Dorset
Northfolk
Somerset
Sussex
Westmorland
North Wiltshire
Yorkshire
Northumberlan
Lancashire

England
Lowland Scottish
Belfast 
South Wales
Yola 
Scotland, Ireland and Wales


Слайд #8
Lallans Scots (Lowland Scots)
Regions: Scotland,
Northern Ireland
Strength: 1,5 000 000
Foundation: XIV-XVI A.C.
Has lots of smaller dialects. Mainly on country territories, north and island.
no diphthongizes (gate = [ge:t] )
-not = -nae (dinnae = don't)
-y = [e] (city = [cite])
precise [r] (in “car”, “curve” etc)
“I’m not” = “I amn’t”
“Wasn’t” = “Mur-nie”
“Why not?” = “How not?”
“I’m going to…” = “I’m away to…”
“I think that” = “I fear “
yes = aye, know = ken, that = yon, girl = lassie, England = Down South, church= kirk, food = scran, crazy = radge, drunken = blutered etc.


Слайд #9
Cockney (London worker’s slang)
Regions: London
Strenght: n/a
Foundation: XIV-XIX A.C.
Was formed in London in lower social classes of different ethnos, mainly – workers. Now it means derisive nickname of lower or middle class’s London citizen.
skipping [h] («not half» = «not 'alf»)
skipping last [t] (fight = [ʃaɪ] )
«isn’t», «am not» =«ain’t»
 [θ] = [f] («thousand» = «faas’nd»)
[ð] = [v] (“brother» =  «brover»)
[aʊ] = [æː] (down =  [dæːn])
[t] = [ʔ] ( bottle = bo’’le)
 [r] =[ʋ] (really = “weally”)
Rhythm slangs:
Daisy roots =  boots, Adam and Eve  =  believe, Penelope cruz =  booze, Lemon squeezy  =  easy etc