Презентація "Adjectives in English"

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Adjectives in English

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Degrees of Comparison
There are three degrees:

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One-syllable Adjectives
Usually, the ending er/est is simply added to the positive form of the adjective. For example: fast - faster  strong - stronger 
tall - tallest  young - youngest
When an adjective ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending er/est is added.
e.g.:  brave - braver - bravest 
close - closer - closest
late - later - latest

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When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending er/est is added.
e.g.:  dry - drier-driest;   easy - easier-easiest
When an adjective ends in a CVC and the last consonant is other than w, x or y or a double vowel - we double the final consonant before adding er/est is added.
e.g.:  big - bigger-biggest  (hot - hotter  sad - saddest
e.g.: loud - louder;  neat - neater;  soon - sooner

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Two and more syllable adjectives
Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we make superior by using:
the most / the least adjective noun.
This book is the most / the least interesting book I have ever read.

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Two and more syllable adjectives
Adjectives of 2 or more syllables (unless it ends with r or y), we compare by using:
noun verb more / less ____ than noun.
This book is more interesting than that book.
My ad is less convincing than your ad.

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Irregular Forms of Comparison
the best
better than
the worst
worse than
the farthest / furthest
farther / further than
the least
less than
the fewest
fewer than
the most
more than

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Adjective Order

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Fact Adjectives

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Opinion + Fact Adjectives

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-ful having… useful
giving… helpful
-less without fearless
-ly having the qualities of cowardly
-like ‘’ childlike
-y like… creamy
covered with… hairy
-ish belonging to Turkish
having the character foolish
-ian in the tradition of Darwinian

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Other adjective suffixes:
-able/-ible = worthy/able: readable/edible
-ish = somewhat youngish
-ed = having balconied

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Adjective suffixes meaning
“having the characteristics of…/ peculiar to…/ full of ….”
-al criminal
(also –ial editorial
and –ical musical
-ic heroic
-ive attractive
(also – ative affirmative
and -itive sensitive
-ous virtuous
(also –eous courteous
and –ious vivacious

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NOTE! -ic vs. -ical
(difference in meaning)
an economic miracle ( in the economy)
the car is economical to run ( money-saving)
a historic building (with a history)
historical research (pertaining to history)

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Adjectives as Nouns = Substantivized Adjectives
Fully substantivized – have all characteristics of a nouna native - the natives, a Russian - the Russians, a German - the Germans.
Partially substantivized – are used as nouns only to show a group, manythe rich, the unemployed, the good, the evil, the beau­tiful, the English.